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Publication Briefs

Veterans Encouraged by a Loved One to Face Stress Induced by Trauma-Focused Therapy are More Likely to Stay in Treatment

Trauma-focused treatments (TFTs) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) result in clinically significant symptom relief for many patients. VA has committed considerable time and resources to ensure that two such therapies—cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE)—are widely available. Both therapies conceptualize PTSD as a disorder of avoidance and focus on facing versus avoiding trauma-related distress. Initiation rates for this type of treatment among Veterans with PTSD at VA facilities is low, and an important minority of those who begin these psychotherapies do not complete treatment. One in three Veterans drop out of trauma-focused treatment. Social system factors may be especially important to understanding these dropout rates, yet when and how family relationships influence PTSD treatment dropout remains unknown. This study examined two support system factors in predicting treatment dropout: Social control (direct efforts by loved ones to encourage Veterans to participate in treatment and face distress) and PTSD symptom accommodation (changes in loved one's behavior to reduce Veterans' PTSD-related distress). Veterans initiating a trauma-focused treatment (CPT or PE) across four VA hospitals received a mailed survey. Veterans then were asked to nominate a close friend, significant other, or family member to complete a similar mailed survey. This study included 272 Veterans and 272 loved ones.


  • Veterans who reported their loved ones encouraged them to face distress were twice as likely to remain in PTSD treatment than Veterans who did not have such encouragement, even after accounting for individual-level predictors of dropout, such as Veterans' attitudes, therapeutic alliance, and symptom severity.
  • There was a significantly greater likelihood of treatment dropout among those whose loved ones reported greater symptom accommodation.


  • Clinicians should consider routinely assessing to what degree Veterans entering TFTs have encouragement by a close loved one to participate in activities that may be distressing.
  • Further work is needed to deepen our understanding of how social control influences psychotherapy retention so that interventions can be developed to optimize social control efforts that help Veterans complete trauma-focused treatment.


  • The mailed survey format prevented investigators from asking Veterans about how a family member may encourage or discourage approaching activities, thoughts, and feelings specific to the Veteran's personal trauma history. This could have attenuated associations between dropout and either social control or accommodation.

This study was partly funded by HSR&D (RRP 12-229). Drs. Meis, Noorbaloochi, and Erbes are part of HSR&D's Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research.

PubMed Logo Meis L, Noorbaloochi S, Erbes C, et al. Sticking It Out in Trauma-Focused Treatment for PTSD: It Takes a Village. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. March 2019;87(3):246-256.

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What are HSR Publication Briefs?

HSR requires notification by HSR-funded investigators about all articles accepted for publication. These journal articles are reviewed by HSR and publication briefs or summaries are written for a select number of articles that are then forwarded to VHA Central Office leadership to keep them informed about important findings or information. Articles to be summarized are selected by HSR based on timeliness of the findings, interest of leadership, or potential impact on the organization. Publication briefs are written for only a small number of HSR published articles. Visit the HSR citations database for a complete listing of HSR articles and presentations.

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