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Wang V, Vilme H, Maciejewski ML, Boulware LE. The Economic Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease. Seminars in Nephrology. 2016 Jul 1; 36(4):319-30.
The growing prevalence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) raises concerns about our capacity to manage its economic burden to patients, caregivers, and society. The societal direct and indirect costs of CKD and end-stage renal disease are substantial and increase throughout disease progression. There is significant variability in the evidence about direct and indirect costs attributable to CKD and end-stage renal disease, with the most complete evidence concentrated on direct health care costs of patients with advanced to end-stage CKD. There are substantial gaps in evidence that need to be filled to inform clinical practice and policy.