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The influence of provider sex on neurologists' annual incomes.
Weeks WB, Wallace AE. The influence of provider sex on neurologists' annual incomes. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan 1; 109(1):38-44.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of provider sex on neurologists' annual incomes after controlling for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. METHODS: We used survey responses collected throughout the 1990s from 216 actively practicing neurologists and linear regression modeling to determine the independent influence of provider sex on neurologists' annual incomes. RESULTS: White female neurologists reported seeing 11% fewer visits and working 6% fewer annual hours than their white male counterparts. White female neurologists had practiced medicine for fewer years than white males (p = 0.01). In addition, females were less likely to be employees, as opposed to having an ownership interest in the practice, and were more likely to be board certified, though not statistically significantly so. After adjustment for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics, white female neurologists' mean annual income was 165,321 dollars, or 47,854 dollars (22%) lower than that for white males (95% CI: 82,710 dollars lower to 12,997 dollars lower, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: During the 1990s, female sex was associated with lower annual incomes among neurologists. Just as policymakers are exploring sex differences in access to and outcomes health care, they should further explore these findings to ensure that income differences among physicians who provide that care are not unjustly driven by provider sex.