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Age-related associations of hypertension and diabetes mellitus with chronic kidney disease.

Islam TM, Fox CS, Mann D, Muntner P. Age-related associations of hypertension and diabetes mellitus with chronic kidney disease. BMC nephrology. 2009 Jun 30; 10:17.

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BACKGROUND: Studies suggest end-stage renal disease incidence and all-cause mortality rates among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) differ by age. The association of diabetes mellitus and hypertension with CKD across the adult lifespan is not well established. METHODS: Data from NHANES 1999-2004 were used to determine the association of risk factors for stage 3 or 4 CKD (n = 12,518) and albuminuria (n = 12,778) by age grouping (20 to 49, 50 to 69, and > or = 70 years). Stage 3 or 4 CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria as an albumin to creatinine ratio > or = 30 mg/g. RESULTS: For adults 20 to 49, 50 to 69 and > or = 70 years of age, the prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of stage 3 or 4 CKD associated with hypertension were 1.94 (0.86 - 4.35), 1.51 (1.09 - 2.07), 1.31 (1.15 - 1.49), respectively (p-trend = 0.038). The analogous prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) were 3.01 (1.35 - 6.74), 1.61 (1.15 - 2.25), 1.40 (1.15 - 1.69), respectively, for diagnosed diabetes mellitus (p-trend = 0.067); and 2.67 (0.53 - 13.4), 1.35 (0.69 - 2.63), 1.08 (0.78 - 1.51), respectively, for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (p-trend = 0.369). The prevalence ratios of albuminuria associated with hypertension and diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus were lower at older age (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among US adults, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are associated with CKD and albuminuria regardless of age. However, the associations were stronger at younger ages.

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