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Factors Associated With Diabetes Distress Among Patients With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes.

German J, Kobe EA, Lewinski AA, Jeffreys AS, Coffman C, Edelman D, Batch BC, Crowley MJ. Factors Associated With Diabetes Distress Among Patients With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of the Endocrine Society. 2023 Mar 6; 7(5):bvad031.

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OBJECTIVE: Examine factors associated with increased diabetes distress (DD) among patients with type 2 diabetes with DD assessed by Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) total and subscale scores (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, and interpersonal distress). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from veterans with persistently poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Multivariable linear regression models included baseline patient characteristics (independent variables) and DDS total and subscale scores (dependent variable). RESULTS: The cohort's (N = 248) mean age was 58 years (SD 8.3); 21% were female, 79% were non-White, and 5% were Hispanic/Latinx. Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 9.8%, and 37.5% had moderate to high DD. Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity ( = 0.41; 95% CI 0.01, 0.80), baseline HbA1c (0.07; 95% CI 0.01,0.13), and higher Personal Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) scores (0.07; 95% CI 0.05, 0.09) were associated with higher total DD. Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity (0.79; 95% CI 0.25, 1.34) and higher PHQ-8 (0.05; 95% CI 0.03, 0.08) were associated with higher interpersonal-related distress. Higher HbA1c (0.15; 95% CI 0.06, 0.23) and higher PHQ-8 scores (0.10; 95% CI 0.07, 0.13) were associated with higher regimen-related distress. The use of basal insulin (0.28; 95% CI 0.001, 0.56) and higher PHQ-8 (0.02; 95% CI 0.001, 0.05) were associated with higher physician-related distress. Higher PHQ-8 (0.10; 95% CI 0.07, 0.12) was associated with higher emotional burden. CONCLUSION: Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity, depressive symptoms, uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and insulin use were associated with higher risk for DD. Future research should explore these relationships, and interventions designed to reduce diabetes distress should consider accounting for these factors.

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