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Hagedorn HJ, Wisdom JP, Gerould H, Pinsker E, Brown R, Dawes M, Dieperink E, Myrick DH, Oliva EM, Wagner TH, Harris AHS. Alcohol use disorder pharmacotherapy and treatment in primary care (ADaPT-PC) trial: Impact on identified barriers to implementation. Substance Abuse. 2022 Jan 1; 43(1):1043-1050.
: A minority of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) receive any type of formal treatment. Developing options for AUD treatment within primary care settings is imperative to increase treatment access. A multi-faceted implementation intervention including provider and patient education, clinician reminders, development of local champions and ongoing facilitation was designed to enhance access to AUD pharmacotherapy in primary care settings at three large Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. This qualitative study compared pre-implementation barriers to post-implementation barriers identified via provider interviews to identify those barriers addressed and not addressed by the intervention to better understand the limited impact of the intervention. : Following the nine-month implementation period, primary care providers at the three participating facilities took part in qualitative interviews to collect perceptions regarding which pre-implementation barriers had and had not been successfully addressed by the intervention. Participants included 20 primary care providers from three large VHA facilities. Interviews were coded using common coding techniques for qualitative data using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) codebook. Summary reports were created for each CFIR construct for each facility and the impact of each CFIR construct on implementation was coded as positive, neutral, or negative. : Some barriers identified during pre-implementation interviews were no longer identified as barriers in the post-implementation interviews. These included Relative Advantage, Relative Priority, and Knowledge and Beliefs about the Innovation. However, Compatibility, Design Quality and Packaging, and Available Resources remained barriers at the end of the implementation period. No substantial new barriers were identified. : The implementation intervention appears to have been successful at addressing barriers that could be mitigated with traditional educational approaches. However, the intervention did not adequately address structural and organizational barriers to implementation. Recommendations for enhancing future interventions are provided.