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Identification of novel factors associated with inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in acute and long-term care.

Valentine-King M, Van J, Hines-Munson C, Dillon L, Graber CJ, Patel PK, Drekonja D, Lichtenberger P, Shukla B, Kramer J, Ramsey D, Trautner B, Grigoryan L. Identification of novel factors associated with inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in acute and long-term care. American journal of infection control. 2022 Nov 1; 50(11):1226-1233.

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BACKGROUND: Chart reviews often fall short of determining what drove antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). To overcome this shortcoming, we searched providers' free-text for documentation of their decision-making and for misleading signs and symptoms that may trigger unnecessary treatment of ASB. METHODS: We reviewed a random sample of 10 positive urine cultures per month, per facility, from patients in acute or long-term care wards at 8 Veterans Affairs facilities. Cultures were classified as urinary tract infection (UTI) or ASB, and as treated or untreated. Charts were searched for 13 potentially misleading symptoms, and free-text documentation of providers' decision-making was classified into 5 categories. We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to identify factors associated with ASB treatment. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-eight (27.5%) of 575 ASB cases were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Significant factors associated with inappropriate treatment included: abdominal pain, falls, decreased urine output, urine characteristics, abnormal vital signs, laboratory values, and voiding issues. Providers prescribed an average of 1.4 antimicrobials to patients with ASB, with cephalosporins (41%) and fluoroquinolones (21%) being the most common classes prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: Chart reviews of providers' decision-making highlighted new factors associated with inappropriate ASB treatment. These findings can help design antibiotic stewardship interventions for ASB.

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