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Changes in Pain Self-Efficacy, Coping Skills, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Yoga, Physical Therapy, and Education for Chronic Low Back Pain.
Marshall A, Joyce CT, Tseng B, Gerlovin H, Yeh GY, Sherman KJ, Saper RB, Roseen EJ. Changes in Pain Self-Efficacy, Coping Skills, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Yoga, Physical Therapy, and Education for Chronic Low Back Pain. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.). 2022 Apr 8; 23(4):834-843.
We evaluated exercise interventions for cognitive appraisal of chronic low back pain (cLBP) in an underserved population.
We conducted a secondary analysis of the Back to Health Trial, showing yoga to be noninferior to physical therapy (PT) for pain and function outcomes among adults with cLBP (n? = 320) recruited from primary care clinics with predominantly low-income patients. Participants were randomized to 12?weeks of yoga, PT, or education. Cognitive appraisal was assessed with the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Using multiple imputation and linear regression, we estimated within- and between-group changes in cognitive appraisal at 12 and 52?weeks, with baseline and the education group as references.
Participants (mean age? = 46 years) were majority female (64%) and majority Black (57%), and 54% had an annual household income < $30,000. All three groups showed improvements in PSEQ (range 0-60) at 12?weeks (yoga, mean difference [MD]? = 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9, 9.0; PT, MD? = 6.9, 95% CI: 4.7 to 9.1; and education, MD? = 3.4, 95% CI: 0.54 to 6.3), with yoga and PT improvements being clinically meaningful. At 12?weeks, improvements in catastrophizing (CSQ, range 0-36) were largest in the yoga and PT groups (MD? = -3.0, 95% CI: -4.4 to -1.6; MD? = -2.7, 95% CI: -4.2 to -1.2, respectively). Changes in FABQ were small. No statistically significant between-group differences were observed on PSEQ, CSQ, or FABQ at either time point. Many of the changes observed at 12?weeks were sustained at 52?weeks.
All three interventions were associated with improvements in self-efficacy and catastrophizing among low-income, racially diverse adults with cLBP.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01343927.