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Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in People Living With HIV.
Zifodya JS, Duncan MS, So-Armah KA, Attia EF, Akgün KM, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Marconi VC, Budoff MJ, Bedimo RJ, Alcorn CW, Soo Hoo GW, Butt AA, Kim JW, Sico JJ, Tindle HA, Huang L, Tate JP, Justice AC, Freiberg MS, Crothers K. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in People Living With HIV. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020 Dec 1; 9(23):e017645.
Background Hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients uninfected with HIV. We evaluated whether people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher risk of CVD or mortality than individuals uninfected with HIV following hospitalization with CAP. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on US veterans admitted with their first episode of CAP from April 2003 through December 2014. We used Cox regression analyses to determine whether HIV status was associated with incident CVD events and mortality from date of admission through 30 days after discharge (30-day mortality), adjusting for known CVD risk factors. We included 4384 patients (67% [n = 2951] PLWH). PLWH admitted with CAP were younger, had less severe CAP, and had fewer CVD risk factors than patients with CAP who were uninfected with HIV. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CVD risk was similar in PLWH compared with HIV-uninfected (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.12), but HIV infection was associated with higher mortality risk (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.90). In models stratified by HIV status, CAP severity was significantly associated with incident CVD and 30-day mortality in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV. Conclusions In this study, the risk of CVD events during or after hospitalization for CAP was similar in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV, after adjusting for known CVD risk factors and CAP severity. HIV infection, however, was associated with increased 30-day mortality after CAP hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models. PLWH should be included in future studies evaluating mechanisms and prevention of CVD events after CAP.