Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

VA Health Systems Research

Go to the VA ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Awareness of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States: An update from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Kim HS, Yang JD, El-Serag HB, Kanwal F. Awareness of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States: An update from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2019 May 1; 26(5):596-602.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


The World Health Organization has set the goal of reducing the hepatitis-related mortality rate by 65% between 2015 and 2030. Diagnosis and awareness of infection is the first essential step towards achieving this goal. Our study examined the current awareness rate of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States and the potentially associated factors. In the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 2013-2016, there were 11 488 persons who participated in serology testing for chronic viral hepatitis. We defined chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by HbsAg, HBV past exposure by anti-HBc and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by HCV RNA. At risk for significant fibrosis was determined by AST to Platelet Ratio Index > 0.7. Awareness of chronic HBV infection, past HBV exposure and HCV infection were present in 33.9%, 11.7% and 55.6% of participants, respectively. Among HCV-infected baby boomers, the awareness was in 61.5%. The awareness of HBV infection was significantly higher in individuals with high education level. Age group (40-60 years), women, non-Black race/ethnicity and those with high household income who were born in the United States with insurance plans tend to be aware of their infection. For HCV, awareness was the lowest in Hispanics and Asians, foreign-born who lived below the federal poverty level and low education level. Awareness among chronic viral hepatitis patients at risk for significant fibrosis was 62.0% in HBV and 38.2% in HCV infection. In conclusion, current awareness of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States remains suboptimal. Active public health policy to identify persons at risk and provide appropriate management is warranted.

Questions about the HSR website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.