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Feasibility and pilot efficacy of a brief smoking cessation intervention delivered by vascular surgeons in the Vascular Physician Offer and Report (VAPOR) Trial.
Goodney PP, Spangler EL, Newhall K, Brooke BS, Schanzer A, Tan TW, Beck AW, Hallett JH, MacKenzie TA, Edelen MO, Hoel AW, Rigotti NA, Farber A. Feasibility and pilot efficacy of a brief smoking cessation intervention delivered by vascular surgeons in the Vascular Physician Offer and Report (VAPOR) Trial. Journal of vascular surgery : official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter. 2017 Apr 1; 65(4):1152-1160.e2.
This study determined the feasibility and potential efficacy of an evidence-based standardized smoking cessation intervention delivered by vascular surgeons to smokers with peripheral arterial disease.
We performed a cluster-randomized trial of current adult smokers referred to eight vascular surgery practices from September 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. A three-component smoking cessation intervention (physician advice, nicotine replacement therapy, and telephone-based quitline referral) was compared with usual care. The primary outcome was smoking cessation for 7 days, assessed 3 months after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were patients' nicotine dependence and health expectancies of smoking assessed using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS; RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif).
We enrolled 156 patients (65 in four intervention practices, 91 in four control practices), and 141 (90.3%) completed follow-up. Patients in the intervention and control practices were similar in age (mean, 61 years), sex (68% male), cigarettes per day (mean, 14), and prior quit attempts (77%). All three components of the intervention were delivered to 75% of patients in intervention practices vs to 7% of patients at control practices (P < .001). At 3 months, 23 of 57 patients (40.3%) in the intervention group quit smoking (23 of 56 patients quit who completed follow-up, plus 1 death included in the analysis in the denominator as a smoker), and 26 of 84 patients (30.9%) In the control group quit smoking (26 patients of 84 who completed follow-up, including 2 deaths included in the denominator as smokers). This difference (40.3% quit rate in intervention, 31% quit rate in control; P = .250) was not statistically significant in crude analyses (P = .250) or analyses adjusted for clustering (P = .470). Multivariable analysis showed factors associated with smoking cessation were receipt of physician advice (odds ratio for cessation, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.02; P < .002) and nicotine replacement therapy (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.56; P < .001).
Implementation of a brief, surgeon-delivered smoking cessation intervention is feasible for patients with peripheral arterial disease. A larger trial will be necessary to determine whether this is effective for smoking cessation.