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Illicit drug use, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in the US adult population.

Akkina SK, Ricardo AC, Patel A, Das A, Bazzano LA, Brecklin C, Fischer MJ, Lash JP. Illicit drug use, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in the US adult population. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 2012 Dec 1; 160(6):391-8.

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Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations, but it is unknown whether the same association exists in the general population. By using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use, including cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin, during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate = 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) = 120/80, = 130/85, and = 140/90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar between illicit drug users and nonusers (100.7 vs 101.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.4), as was albuminuria (5.7 vs 6.0 mg/g creatinine, P = 0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs 118 mm Hg, P = 0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs 71 mm Hg, P = 0.0003) compared with nonusers. Cocaine use was independently associated with BP = 130/85 mm Hg (OR, 1.24; CI, 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times; OR, 1.42; CI, 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the US population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD, but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated BP.

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