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Hepatitis C and the risk of kidney disease and mortality in veterans with HIV.
Fischer MJ, Wyatt CM, Gordon K, Gibert CL, Brown ST, Rimland D, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Justice AC, Parikh CR, VACS Project Team. Hepatitis C and the risk of kidney disease and mortality in veterans with HIV. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2010 Feb 1; 53(2):222-6.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among veterans with HIV and to evaluate independent associations of HCV and CKD with mortality. METHODS: We studied a national cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care through the Veterans Healthcare Administration from 1998 to 2004. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)] < 60. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships between CKD, HCV, and mortality. RESULTS: Among 23,155 HIV-infected veterans, 12% had CKD. Forty percent of the cohort was coinfected with HCV, and a higher proportion of coinfected subjects had CKD compared with monoinfected subjects (14% vs 11%, P < 0.001). During the median follow-up of 7.6 years, 37% of subjects died and a graduated increase in adjusted mortality rates occurred with lower levels of eGFR (P < 0.001). Adjusted mortality rates were consistently higher in HCV-coinfected subjects across all levels of eGFR (P < 0.001). HCV was independently associated with increased mortality (incidence rate ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: CKD is prevalent in HIV-infected veterans and associated with substantially higher mortality. Compared with their monoinfected counterparts, veterans coinfected with HCV have significantly higher rates of CKD and mortality.