Implementation of evidence based practices and programs (EBPs) is complex, challenging, and rarely sustained. There is evidence that ongoing facilitation can foster EBP implementation. We previously developed an external/internal facilitation strategy that combines an external facilitator, an expert in implementation methods and specific EBPs, with a network-level internal facilitator who is familiar with clinic-level structures, climates, and practices and who, with mentoring, develops expertise in implementation facilitation. The Blended Facilitation study implemented and rigorously evaluated this strategy within the context of VA's Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook requirements for primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI). Using external/internal facilitation can enable VA to foster the sustainable organizational change that new policy and associated implementation of system wide QI initiatives require.
This project sought to 1) test effectiveness of the facilitation strategy versus standard national support on extent of clinic-level outcomes, provider behavior change, and changes in Veterans' service utilization; 2) assess organizational context, perceptions and attitudes regarding evidence for PC-MHI programs, and the facilitation process within the context of those findings; 3) collect data on facilitation time/activities for use in a future cost proposal; and 4) document activities and time required to transfer external/internal facilitation to VA Operations personnel.
We used a multi-site, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent comparison groups. Eight PC clinics from two VA networks received external/internal facilitation. We compared clinics to eight matched clinics in two matched networks. We excluded one matched clinic pair from administrative data analysis due to the facilitation site's failure to complete the program design phase. Using quantitative and qualitative methods we evaluated the facilitation strategy on RE-AIM framework dimensions of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. We collected data during late phase PC-MHI implementation and one year later. We compared clinics on percentage of PC patients with a PC-MHI encounter, a first MH specialty care visit, and PC-MHI referral/same day encounter; percentage of PC providers referring at least one patient and providers' patients that were referred to PC-MHI. We also assessed PC-MHI program components and obtained expert ratings of clinics' program quality. We conducted 83 interviews with study facilitators to document their activities and collected time data for facilitation activities. We also conducted organizational context surveys early in the implementation process. At four selected facilitation sites, we assessed key stakeholder perceptions about facilitation and its value. To document efforts to transfer this strategy to VA Operations, we conducted 45 interviews with facilitators and collected time data for their activities.
Aim 1: In assessing late phase implementation, compared to non-facilitation sites, facilitation sites achieved statistically significant (p<0.05) higher rates of PC-MHI engagement (4.1%, 1.7%), providers referring at least one patient (86.8%, 72.9%), providers' patients referred to PC-MHI (1.72%, 0.25%), and patients receiving same day access to PC-MHI compared to non-facilitation sites (32.0%, 9.2%). In assessing implementation maintenance phase, facilitation sites maintained statistically significant higher rates of engagement (4.8%, 2.3%), provider median referral rate (2.69%, 1.48%) and same day access (29.1%, 22.6%). Facilitation sites also maintained a greater proportion of providers referring to PC-MHI (94.4%, 87.0%) however; the difference was not statistically significant. Although the median rate for initial MHSC encounters at facilitation sites was lower than that of non-facilitation sites at both study periods (42% - 54%, 40% - 49% respectively) the differences were not significant. Upon examination of qualitative data it was discovered that two non-facilitation sites were recording PC-MHI encounters without a PC-MHI program. An additional analysis excluding these encounters strengthened our original findings. In addition, the proportion of providers referring to PC-MHI in facilitation sites during the maintenance phase was statistically significant (94.4%, 69.8% respectively). These findings suggest that sites receiving facilitation implement PC-MHI more robustly and maintain their gains over time. Supporting these findings, our qualitative assessment of late phase implementation revealed that seven facilitation but only five comparison sites had implemented PC-MHI programs. During the maintenance phase, all facilitation but still only five comparison sites had programs. Experts rated all but one of the facilitation site programs higher than their matched comparison sites.
Aim 2: We examined the interplay between facilitation and organizational context and found that facilitation helps overcome organizational barriers. We also conducted a detail analysis of the facilitation process. Concordant with the literature, we found that facilitators both "do" things for stakeholders and "enable" stakeholders to do things for themselves. One particular activity type (e.g., education), however, can involve both "doing" (e.g., providing education) and enabling (e.g., fostering attendance). We also assessed change over time. Although certain activities cluster during particular implementation periods, we found organizational context and stakeholders' needs play a substantial role in what facilitators do and when they do it. We also observed systematic regional differences in the process, possibly due to organizational or facilitator characteristics. Finally, stakeholders and facilitators believed that facilitators ideally possess certain characteristics and skills. It is possible that coaching and mentoring may help those who do not possess these to obtain them.
Aim 3: Analysis of time data revealed that during the study, 3 facilitators spent 3,955 person hours helping clinics implement PC-MHI. Facilitators' top three activities in terms of person hours were preparation and planning, stakeholder engagement, and education. VHA stakeholders (n=399) from all levels participated in facilitation activities for 3,042 person hours.
Aim 4: In transferring the facilitation strategy to OMHO, it was important to be flexible and respond to their changing agenda and balance quality improvement and scientific rigor. Consultants provided 590 person hours, during half of which they conducted preparation/planning and mentoring.
This project has cemented partnerships with operational leaders, continues to have significant impacts on VA's efforts to implement the Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook to ensure that all Veterans have access to needed mental health services, has informed national policy and planning task forces and other research studies and has contributed to implementation of two PC-MHI 'best practices."
External Links for this Project
- Ritchie MJ, Parker LE, Kirchner JE. Facilitating implementation of primary care mental health over time and across organizational contexts: a qualitative study of role and process. BMC health services research. 2023 Jun 1; 23(1):565. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Parker LE, Kirchner JE. From novice to expert: a qualitative study of implementation facilitation skills. Implementation Science Communications. 2020 Feb 25; 1(25):https://doi.org/10.1186/s43058-020-00006-8. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Ritchie MJ, Pitcock JA, Parker LE, Curran GM, Fortney JC. Outcomes of a partnered facilitation strategy to implement primary care-mental health. Journal of general internal medicine. 2014 Dec 1; 29 Suppl 4:904-12. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Kearney LK, Ritchie MJ, Dollar KM, Swensen AB, Schohn M. Research & services partnerships: lessons learned through a national partnership between clinical leaders and researchers. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.). 2014 May 1; 65(5):577-9. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Dollar KM, Kearney LK, Kirchner JE. Research and services partnerships: Responding to needs of clinical operations partners: transferring implementation facilitation knowledge and skills. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.). 2014 Feb 1; 65(2):141-3. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Kirchner JE, Townsend JC, Pitcock JA, Dollar KM, Liu CF. Time and Organizational Cost for Facilitating Implementation of Primary Care Mental Health Integration. Journal of general internal medicine. 2020 Apr 1; 35(4):1001-1010. [view]
- Kirchner J, Edlund CN, Henderson K, Daily L, Parker LE, Fortney JC. Using a multi-level approach to implement a primary care mental health (PCMH) program. Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare. 2010 Jun 1; 28(2):161-74. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Parker LE, Edlund CN, Kirchner JE. Using implementation facilitation to foster clinical practice quality and adherence to evidence in challenged settings: a qualitative study. BMC health services research. 2017 Apr 20; 17(1):294. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Kirchner JE, Parker LE, Curran GM, Fortney JC, Pitcock J, Bonner LM, Kilbourne AM. Evaluation of an implementation facilitation strategy for settings that experience significant implementation barriers. Implementation Science. 2015 Aug 20; 10(Suppl 1):A46. [view]
- Dollar KM, Kirchner JE. Facilitation training with OMHO. 2013 Dec 11. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Ritchie MJ, Dollar KM, Gundlach P, Smith JL. Implementation facilitation training manual: using external and internal facilitation to improve care in the Veterans Health Administration. http://www.queri.research.va.gov/tools/implementation/default.cfm. 2013 Nov 6. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Dollar KM, Collie C, Kearney LK, Ritchie MJ, Gundlach P. Using external and internal facilitation to improve care in VHA. 2013 Dec 18. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Smith JL. Using external facilitation to implement PTSD outcomes monitoring. VA/DoD joint incentive fund 26 training. 2014 May 13. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Smith JL. Using external facilitation to implement PTSD outcomes monitoring. VA/DoD joint incentive fund 26 training. 2014 Mar 12. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Kirchner JE, Parker LE, Curran GM, Fortney JC, Pitcock J, Bonner LM, Kilbourne AM. Evaluation of an implementation facilitation strategy for settings that experience significant implementation barriers. Paper presented at: National Institutes of Health / AcademyHealth Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation; 2014 Dec 9; Bethesda, MD. [view]
- Kirchner JE. Evidence Based Implementation Models: What Does It Take? Paper presented at: VA HSR&D Field-Based Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Meeting; 2010 Apr 28; Little Rock, AR. [view]
- Kilbourne AM, Kirchner J, Post EP, Bauer MS. Evidence-based Implementation Models for the VA to Improve Veterans' Mental Health Care. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D Field-Based Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Meeting; 2010 Apr 29; Little Rock, AR. [view]
- Kirchner JE. Evidenced Based Implementation Models: What Does It Take? Paper presented at: National Institutes of Health Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation: Methods and Measurement; 2010 Mar 16; Bethesda, MD. [view]
- Parker LE, Ritchie MJ, Bonner L, Kirchner JE. Examining inside the black box of implementation facilitation: Process and effects on program quality. Poster session presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2014 Jun 10; San Diego, CA. [view]
- Kirchner JE. From Theory to Practice: Designing and Conducting Facilitation Implementation Interventions to Improve Integrated Care. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2013 Jun 24; Baltimore, MD. [view]
- Kilbourne AM, Kirchner J, Post EP, Bauer MS. Implementation Techniques for Clinicians: Advancing the Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Poster session presented at: VA Implementing a Public Health Model for Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Veterans Annual Mental Health Conference; 2010 Jul 27; Baltimore, MD. [view]
- Cohen AN, Hamilton AB, Ritchie MJ, Mittman BS, Kirchner JE, Wyatt GE, Fortney JC, Hellemann G, Liu H, Curran GM, Whelan F, Eccles AM, Parker LE, McNagny K, Hutchinson CS, Teague AB, Reist C, Young AS. Improving care quality through hybrid implementation/effectiveness studies: Best practices in design, methods, and measures. Paper presented at: National Institutes of Health / AcademyHealth Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation; 2014 Dec 9; Bethesda, MD. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Chinman MJ, Hamilton AB, Ritchie MJ. Making practice change possible in learning healthcare organizations: Applying state-of-the-art implementation strategies. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2014 Jun 7; San Diego, CA. [view]
- Kearney LK, Kirchner JE, Pomerantz AS, Wray LO. Navigating the bumps in the road: strategies for national implementation of primary care-mental health integration. Paper presented at: VA Psychology Leadership Conference; 2014 May 21; Houston, TX. [view]
- Dollar KM, Kirchner JE. Partnering to Adapt PC-MHI for CBOCs. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D / QUERI National Meeting; 2012 Jul 18; National Harbor, MD. [view]
- Kirchner JE. Primary Care-Mental Health Integration and the Medical Home. Paper presented at: VA Patient Centered Medical Home Summit; 2010 Apr 14; Las Vegas, NV. [view]
- Kirchner JE, Ritchie MJ, Pitcock JA, Parker LE, Curran GM, Fortney JC. Quantitative outcomes of using facilitation in implementing Primary Care – Mental Health Integration. Poster session presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2014 Jun 10; San Diego, CA. [view]
- Cully J, Kirchner JE, Kivlahan DR, Lysell K. Research-Clinical Partnerships. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D Field-Based Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Meeting; 2010 Apr 29; Little Rock, AR. [view]
- Kilbourne A, Rubenstein L, Kirchner JE, Damush T, Sales A. So you Have an Effective Intervention- Now What? Applying Implementation Strategies to Support Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2016 Jun 28; Boston, MA. [view]
- Ritchie MJ, Parker LE, Kirchner JE. Transferring implementation knowledge and skills to improve healthcare delivery systems. Poster session presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2014 Jun 10; San Diego, CA. [view]
Mental, Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders, Health Systems
Implementation, Mental health care service