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Osawa T, Lee CT, Abe T, Takada N, Hafez KS, Montgomery JS, Weizer AZ, Hollenbeck BK, Skolarus TA, Murai S, Shinohara N, Morgan TM. A Multi-Center International Study Assessing the Impact of Differences in Baseline Characteristics and Perioperative Care Following Radical Cystectomy. Bladder cancer. 2016 Apr 27; 2(2):251-261.
Background: To identify potential avenues for quality improvement, we compared the variations in clinical practice and their association with perioperative morbidity and mortality following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer in the United States (US) and Japan. Methods: We reviewed our retrospectively collected database of 2240 patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer at the University of Michigan (n = 1427) and in 21 Japanese institutions (n = 813) between 1997 and 2014. We performed a systematic comparison of clinical and perioperative factors and assessed predictors of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Death within 90 days of surgery was the primary outcome. Results: There were apparent differences between the two study populations. Notably, US patients had a significantly greater BMI and higher ASA score. In Japanese institutions, median postoperative hospital stay was significantly higher (40 days vs. 7 days, p < 0.001) and 90-day readmission rates were significantly lower (0.6% vs. 26.8% , p < 0.001). There was a total of 1372/2240 (61.2%) patients with complications within 90 days and 66/2240 (2.9%) patient deaths. Significant predictors of 90-day mortality were older age (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.07), higher body mass index (OR 1.07, CI 1.02-1.12), node-positive disease (OR 3.14, CI 1.78-5.47), increased blood loss (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03), and major (Clavien-grade 3 or greater) complication (OR 3.29, CI 1.88-5.71). Conclusion: Despite major differences in baseline characteristics and care of cystectomy patients between the two study populations, peri-operative mortality rates proved to be comparable. This data supports an exploration of non-traditional factors that may influence mortality after cystectomy.