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HIV infection, cardiovascular disease risk factor profile, and risk for acute myocardial infarction.
Paisible AL, Chang CC, So-Armah KA, Butt AA, Leaf DA, Budoff M, Rimland D, Bedimo R, Goetz MB, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Crane HM, Gibert CL, Brown ST, Tindle HA, Warner AL, Alcorn C, Skanderson M, Justice AC, Freiberg MS. HIV infection, cardiovascular disease risk factor profile, and risk for acute myocardial infarction. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2015 Feb 1; 68(2):209-16.
Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among HIV-infected (HIV+) participants. We assessed the association between HIV and incident AMI within CVDRF strata.
Cohort-81,322 participants (33% HIV+) without prevalent CVD from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (prospective study of HIV+ and matched HIV- veterans) participated in this study. Veterans were followed from first clinical encounter on/after April 1, 2003, until AMI/death/last follow-up date (December 31, 2009). Predictors-HIV, CVDRFs (total cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agents, blood pressure, blood pressure medication, smoking, diabetes) used to create 6 mutually exclusive profiles: all CVDRFs optimal, 1+ nonoptimal CVDRFs, 1+ elevated CVDRFs, and 1, 2, 3+ major CVDRFs. Outcome-Incident AMI [defined using enzyme, electrocardiogram (EKG) clinical data, 410 inpatient ICD-9 (Medicare), and/or death certificates]. Statistics-Cox models adjusted for demographics, comorbidity, and substance use.
Of note, 858 AMIs (42% HIV+) occurred over 5.9 years (median). Prevalence of optimal cardiac health was < 2%. Optimal CVDRF profile was associated with the lowest adjusted AMI rates. Compared with HIV- veterans, AMI rates among HIV+ veterans with similar CVDRF profiles were higher. Compared with HIV- veterans without major CVDRFs, HIV+ veterans without major CVDRFs had a 2-fold increased risk of AMI (HR: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 3.9; P = 0.044).
The prevalence of optimal cardiac health is low in this cohort. Among those without major CVDRFs, HIV+ veterans have twice the AMI risk. Compared with HIV- veterans with high CVDRF burden, AMI rates were still higher in HIV+ veterans. Preventing/reducing CVDRF burden may reduce excess AMI risk among HIV+ people.