Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

VA Health Systems Research

Go to the VA ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Associations between depression and all-cause and cause-specific risk of death: a retrospective cohort study in the Veterans Health Administration.

Zivin K, Yosef M, Miller EM, Valenstein M, Duffy S, Kales HC, Vijan S, Kim HM. Associations between depression and all-cause and cause-specific risk of death: a retrospective cohort study in the Veterans Health Administration. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2015 Apr 1; 78(4):324-31.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


OBJECTIVE: Depression may be associated with increased mortality risk, but there are substantial limitations to existing studies assessing this relationship. We sought to overcome limitations of existing studies by conducting a large, national, longitudinal study to assess the impact of depression on all-cause and cause-specific risk of death. METHODS: We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios associated with baseline depression diagnosis (N = 849,474) and three-year mortality among 5,078,082 patients treated in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) settings in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index (NDI). RESULTS: Baseline depression was associated with 17% greater hazard of all-cause three-year mortality (95% CI hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15, 1.18) after adjusting for baseline patient demographic and clinical characteristics and VHA facility characteristics. Depression was associated with a higher hazard of three-year mortality from heart disease, respiratory illness, cerebrovascular disease, accidents, diabetes, nephritis, influenza, Alzheimer's disease, septicemia, suicide, Parkinson's disease, and hypertension. Depression was associated with a lower hazard of death from malignant neoplasm and liver disease. Depression was not associated with mortality due to assault. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to being associated with suicide and injury-related causes of death, depression is associated with increased risk of death from nearly all major medical causes, independent of multiple major risk factors. Findings highlight the need to better understand and prevent mortality seen with multiple medical disorders associated with depression.

Questions about the HSR website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.