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Rural/urban residence, access, and perceived need for treatment among African American cocaine users.

Borders TF, Booth BM, Stewart KE, Cheney AM, Curran GM. Rural/urban residence, access, and perceived need for treatment among African American cocaine users. The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association. 2014 Sep 11; 31(1):98-107.

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR = 0.21); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR = 3.97) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR = 0.65). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR = 0.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR = 1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR = 1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking.





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