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Hu TW, Wagner TH. Economic considerations in overactive bladder. The American journal of managed care. 2000 Jul 1; 6(11 Suppl):S591-8.
Many costs are associated with overactive bladder (OAB). They include direct costs, such as those associated with treatment, diagnosis, routine care, and the consequences of the disease; indirect costs of lost wages and productivity; and intangible costs associated with pain, suffering, and decreased quality of life. Quantification of all these costs is essential for establishing the total economic burden of a disease on society. Currently, the total economic burden of OAB is unknown. However, various studies have determined that the economic burden of urinary incontinence, one of the symptoms of OAB, is substantial. It is also important to establish the economic impact of various interventions for OAB. Cost-minimization, cost-outcome, cost-utility, and cost-benefit models can be used for these analyses. The most difficult aspect of evaluating the economic impact of a treatment is estimating the intangible costs.