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Predicting coronary heart disease events in women: a longitudinal cohort study.

McSweeney J, Cleves MA, Fischer EP, Moser DK, Wei J, Pettey C, Rojo MO, Armbya N. Predicting coronary heart disease events in women: a longitudinal cohort study. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing. 2014 Nov 1; 29(6):482-92.

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BACKGROUND: More than 240 000 women in the United States die of coronary heart disease annually. Identifying women's symptoms that predict a coronary heart disease event such as myocardial infarction (MI) could decrease mortality. OBJECTIVE: For this longitudinal observational study, we recruited 1097 women, who were either clinician referred or self-referred to a cardiologist and undergoing initial evaluation by a cardiologist, to assess the utility of the prodromal symptoms (PS) section of the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey (MAPMISS) in predicting the occurrence of cardiac events in women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-seven women experienced events (angioplasty, stent placement, coronary artery bypass, MI, death) during the 2-year follow up. The most common events were stents alone (38.9%) or in combination with angioplasty (18.2%). Ten women had MIs; 4 experienced cardiac death. Cox proportional hazards was used to model time to event. The prodromal score was significantly associated with risk of an event (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.13), as was the number of PSs endorsed by each woman per visit. After covariate adjustment, 5 symptoms were significantly associated with increased risk: discomfort in jaws/teeth, unusual fatigue, arm discomfort, shortness of breath, and general chest discomfort (hazard ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-6.78). Women reporting 1 or more of these symptoms were 4 times as likely to experience a cardiac event as women with none. CONCLUSIONS: Both the MAPMISS PS scores and number of PS were significantly associated with cardiac events, independent of risk factors, suggesting that there are specific PSs that can be easily assessed using the MAPMISS. This instrument could be an important component of a predictive screen to assist clinicians in deciding the course of management for women.

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