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Zullig LL, Melnyk SD, Stechuchak KM, McCant F, Danus S, Oddone E, Bastian L, Olsen M, Edelman D, Rakley S, Morey M, Bosworth HB. The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES): rationale for a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association. 2014 Feb 1; 20(2):135-43.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are significant, but often preventable, contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medication and behavioral nonadherence are significant barriers to successful hypertension, hyperlidemia, and diabetes management. Our objective was to describe the theoretical framework underlying a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving CVD risk reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia were enrolled from three outpatient primary care clinics associated with the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Durham, NC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a pharmacist-administered, tailored, 1-year telephone-based intervention or usual care. The goal of the study was to reduce the risk for CVD through a theory-driven intervention to increase medication adherence and improve health behaviors. RESULTS: Enrollment began in November 2011 and is ongoing. The target sample size is 500 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES) intervention has been designed with a strong theoretical underpinning. The theoretical foundation and intervention are designed to encourage patients with multiple comorbidities and poorly controlled CVD risk factors to engage in home-based monitoring and tailored telephone-based interventions. Evidence suggests that clinical pharmacist-administered telephone-based interventions may be efficiently integrated into primary care for patients with poorly controlled CVD risk factors.