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Searching for an optimal hand hygiene bundle: a meta-analysis.
Schweizer ML, Reisinger HS, Ohl M, Formanek MB, Blevins A, Ward MA, Perencevich EN. Searching for an optimal hand hygiene bundle: a meta-analysis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2014 Jan 1; 58(2):248-59.
Many studies have evaluated bundled interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance. However, there are few evidence-based recommendations on optimal interventions for implementation. We aimed to systematically review all studies on interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance to evaluate existing bundles and identify areas of promise to target high-quality studies. Adjusted risk ratios were pooled to assess common bundles. Of the 8148 studies evaluated, 6 randomized controlled trials and 39 quasi-experimental studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the interventions education, reminders, feedback, administrative support, and access to alcohol-based hand rub as a bundle, which was associated with improved hand hygiene compliance (pooled odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-1.97). Another bundle of education, reminders, and feedback evaluated in 3 studies was associated with improved compliance (pooled OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12-1.94). These bundles should be further studied using high-quality study designs and compared with other interventions.