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Fung CH, Martin JL, Chung C, Fiorentino L, Mitchell M, Josephson KR, Jouldjian S, Alessi C. Sleep disturbance among older adults in assisted living facilities. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 1; 20(6):485-93.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbances persist among older adults in assisted living facilities (ALFs) and to identify predictors of sleep disturbance in this setting. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 121 residents, age = 65 years, in 18 ALFs in the Los Angeles area. MEASUREMENTS: Objective (actigraphy) and subjective (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) sleep measures were collected at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Predictors of baseline sleep disturbance tested in bivariate analyses and multiple regression models included demographics, Mini-Mental State Examination score, number of comorbidities, nighttime sedating medication use, functional status (activities of daily living; instrumental activities of daily living), restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea risk. RESULTS: Objective and subjective sleep measures were similar at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up (objective nighttime total sleep [hours] 6.3, 6.5, and 6.4; objective nighttime percent sleep 77.2, 77.7, and 78.3; and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index total score 8.0, 7.8, and 7.7, respectively). The mean baseline nighttime percent sleep decreased by 2% for each additional unit increase in baseline comorbid conditions (measured as the number of conditions), and increased by 4.5% for each additional unit increase in baseline activities of daily living (measured as the number of activities of daily living), in a multiple regression model. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbances are persistent among ALF residents and are related to a greater number of comorbidities and poorer functional status at baseline. Interventions are needed to improve sleep in this setting.