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Raval MV, Wang X, Cohen ME, Ingraham AM, Bentrem DJ, Dimick JB, Flynn T, Hall BL, Ko CY. The influence of resident involvement on surgical outcomes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2011 May 1; 212(5):889-98.
Resident intraoperative participation is associated with slightly higher morbidity rates but slightly decreased mortality rates across a variety of procedures and is minimized further after taking into account hospital-level variation. These clinically small effects may serve to reassure patients and others that resident involvement in surgical care is safe and possibly protective with regard to mortality.