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Freiberg MS, McGinnis KA, Kraemer K, Samet JH, Conigliaro J, Curtis Ellison R, Bryant K, Kuller LH, Justice AC, VACS Project Team. The association between alcohol consumption and prevalent cardiovascular diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2010 Feb 1; 53(2):247-53.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected veterans. METHODS: Using established thresholds for alcohol consumption, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 4743 men (51% HIV infected) from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of HIV-infected veterans and demographically similar HIV-uninfected veterans. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio (OR) for the association between alcohol consumption and prevalent CVD. RESULTS: Among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men, respectively, hazardous drinking (33.2% vs. 30.9%,), alcohol abuse and dependence (20.9% vs. 26.2%), and CVD (14.6% vs. 19.8%) were common. Among HIV-infected men, hazardous drinking [OR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05 to 1.94] and alcohol abuse and dependence (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.23) were associated with a higher prevalence of CVD compared with infrequent and moderate drinking. Among HIV-uninfected men, past drinkers had a higher prevalence of CVD (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.67). For HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men, traditional risk factors and kidney disease were associated with CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected men, hazardous drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence were associated with a higher prevalence of CVD compared with infrequent and moderate drinking even after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors, antiretroviral therapy, and CD4 count.