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Prevalence and management of hypertension in the inpatient setting: A systematic review.

Axon RN, Cousineau L, Egan BM. Prevalence and management of hypertension in the inpatient setting: A systematic review. Journal of hospital medicine (Online). 2011 Sep 1.

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BACKGROUND:: Hypertension (HTN) is a major cardiovascular risk factor yet control rates remain suboptimal. Thus, improving recognition, treatment, and control of HTN by focusing on novel populations such as hospitalized patients is warranted. Current consensus guidelines do not address inpatient HTN, and little is known about HTN prevalence or patterns of care in this setting. METHODS:: We conducted a systematic review of English-language studies published in 1976 or later that reported on HTN prevalence and care patterns among adult inpatients. We included MEDLINE-indexed randomized-controlled trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies that: (1) reported estimates of the prevalence of HTN in the inpatient setting, and (2) used HTN diagnosis or treatment as a primary focus. We excluded randomized, controlled trials that recorded measures of inpatient blood pressure but whose focus was not HTN. RESULTS:: We identified 9 studies meeting inclusion criteria, and in those studies, HTN was highly prevalent among inpatients, ranging from 50.5% to 72%. Intensification of antihypertensive treatment was inconsistent, and 37% to 77% of hypertensive patients remained hypertensive at the time of discharge. Most patients with inpatient HTN continued to have elevated blood pressures at outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Inpatient HTN is prevalent and a large percentage of those with this condition remain hypertensive at the time of discharge and at follow-up. The potential exists for improved recognition and treatment of newly diagnosed and known, but uncontrolled, HTN observed in the inpatient setting. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

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