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Predictors of depressive symptoms in older veterans with heart failure.

Paukert AL, LeMaire A, Cully JA. Predictors of depressive symptoms in older veterans with heart failure. Aging & mental health. 2009 Jul 1; 13(4):601-10.

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OBJECTIVES: This study collected data on demographic factors, heart failure physical limitations, perception of heart failure intrusiveness, coping mechanisms, locus of control, self-efficacy and social support for 104 older veterans with heart failure (HF) to determine the factors' relative importance in predicting depressive symptoms. METHOD: Participants were veterans at least 60 years of age with HF who were screened for depression and anxiety with the Geriatric Depression Scale and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, respectively, so that the final sample consisted of equal numbers with and without significant levels of anxiety and depression. Other measures included the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Heart Failure Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, Brief-COPE, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. RESULTS: Correlational analyses indicated that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with physical limitations from HF, HF perceptions of intrusiveness, maladaptive coping, attributing locus of control to chance and HF self-efficacy. Including these variables in one regression equation predicting depressive symptoms indicated that perceptions of intrusiveness from HF and attributing locus of control to chance were the only variables to predict depressive symptoms independent of the influence of other significant bivariate predictors. CONCLUSION: Even if physical limitations, maladaptive coping and self-efficacy are held constant, decreasing perceptions of HF intrusiveness and locus of control to chance reduce depressive symptoms. These two cognitive/perceptual factors may play a salient role in treatment of depression among older HF patients.

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