Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

VA Health Systems Research

Go to the VA ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Educational disparities in rates of smoking among diabetic adults: the translating research into action for diabetes study.

Karter AJ, Stevens MR, Gregg EW, Brown AF, Tseng CW, Marrero DG, Duru OK, Gary TL, Piette JD, Waitzfelder B, Herman WH, Beckles GL, Safford MM, Ettner SL. Educational disparities in rates of smoking among diabetic adults: the translating research into action for diabetes study. American journal of public health. 2008 Feb 1; 98(2):365-70.

Related HSR&D Project(s)

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


OBJECTIVES: We assessed educational disparities in smoking rates among adults with diabetes in managed care settings. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional, survey-based (2002-2003) observational study among 6538 diabetic patients older than 25 years across multiple managed care health plans and states. For smoking at each level of self-reported educational attainment, predicted probabilities were estimated by means of hierarchical logistic regression models with random intercepts for health plan, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 15% the participants reported current smoking. An educational gradient in smoking was observed that varied significantly (P < .003) across age groups, with the educational gradient being strong in those aged 25 to 44 years, modest in those aged 45 to 64 years, and nonexistent in those aged 65 years or older. Of particular note, the prevalence of smoking observed in adults aged 25-44 years with less than a high school education was 50% (95% confidence interval: 36% to 63%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of poorly educated young adults with diabetes smoke, magnifying the health risk associated with early-onset diabetes. Targeted public health interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among young, poorly educated people with diabetes are needed.

Questions about the HSR website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.