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Biomarkers to predict recurrent cardiovascular disease: the Heart and Soul Study.

Shlipak MG, Ix JH, Bibbins-Domingo K, Lin F, Whooley MA. Biomarkers to predict recurrent cardiovascular disease: the Heart and Soul Study. The American journal of medicine. 2008 Jan 1; 121(1):50-7.

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PURPOSE: The study purpose was to evaluate the ability of 6 biomarkers to improve the prediction of cardiovascular events among persons with established coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk algorithms are designed to predict the initial onset of coronary artery disease but are less effective in persons with preexisting coronary artery disease. METHODS: We examined the association of N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP), cystatin C, albuminuria, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and fibrinogen with cardiovascular events in 979 Heart and Soul Study participants with coronary artery disease after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and behavior variables; cardiovascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease severity; medication use; and left ventricular ejection fraction. The outcome was a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary heart disease death during an average of 3.5 years of follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 142 participants (15%) developed cardiovascular events. The highest quartiles (vs lower 3 quartiles) of 5 biomarkers were individually associated with cardiovascular risk after multivariate analysis: Nt-proBNP hazard ratio (HR) = 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-3.18); cystatin C HR = 1.72 (95% CI, 1.10-2.70); albuminuria HR = 1.71 (95% CI, 1.15-2.54); CRP HR = 2.00 (95% CI, 1.40-2.85); and interleukin-6 HR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.22-2.53). When all biomarkers were included in the multivariable analysis, only Nt-proBNP, albuminuria, and CRP remained significant predictors of events: HR = 1.88 (95% CI, 1.23-2.85), HR = 1.63 (95% CI, 1.09-2.43), and HR = 1.82 (95% CI, 1.24-2.67), respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve for clinical predictors alone was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.68-0.78); adding Nt-proBNP, albuminuria, and CRP significantly increased the area under the receiver operator curve to 0.77 (95% CI, 0.73-0.82, P < .005). CONCLUSION: Among persons with prevalent coronary artery disease, biomarkers reflecting hemodynamic stress, kidney damage, and inflammation added significant risk discrimination for cardiovascular events.

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