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Association between median household income, state Medicaid expansion status, and COVID-19 outcomes across US counties.

Apenyo T, Vera-Urbina AE, Ahmad K, Taveira TH, Wu WC. Association between median household income, state Medicaid expansion status, and COVID-19 outcomes across US counties. PLoS ONE. 2022 Aug 11; 17(8):e0272497.

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between county-level COVID-19 outcomes (incidence and mortality) and county-level median household income and status of Medicaid expansion of US counties. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 3142 US counties was conducted to study the relationship between County-level median-household-income and COVID-19 incidence and mortality per 100,000 people in US counties, January-20th-2021 through December-6th-2021. County median-household-income was log-transformed and stratified by quartiles. Multilevel-mixed-effects-generalized-linear-modeling adjusted for county socio-demographic and comorbidities and tested for Medicaid-expansion-times-income-quartile interaction on COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in COVID-19 incidence-rate across counties by income quartiles or by Medicaid expansion status. Conversely, for non-Medicaid-expansion states, counties in the lowest income quartile had a 41% increase in COVID-19 mortality-rate compared to counties in the highest income quartile. Mortality-rate was not related to income in counties from Medicaid-expansion states. CONCLUSIONS: Median-household-income was not related to COVID-19 incidence-rate but negatively related to COVID-19 mortality-rate in US counties of states without Medicaid-expansion.





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