skip to page content
Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Association between median household income, state Medicaid expansion status, and COVID-19 outcomes across US counties.

Apenyo T, Vera-Urbina AE, Ahmad K, Taveira TH, Wu WC. Association between median household income, state Medicaid expansion status, and COVID-19 outcomes across US counties. PLoS ONE. 2022 Aug 11; 17(8):e0272497.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between county-level COVID-19 outcomes (incidence and mortality) and county-level median household income and status of Medicaid expansion of US counties. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 3142 US counties was conducted to study the relationship between County-level median-household-income and COVID-19 incidence and mortality per 100,000 people in US counties, January-20th-2021 through December-6th-2021. County median-household-income was log-transformed and stratified by quartiles. Multilevel-mixed-effects-generalized-linear-modeling adjusted for county socio-demographic and comorbidities and tested for Medicaid-expansion-times-income-quartile interaction on COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in COVID-19 incidence-rate across counties by income quartiles or by Medicaid expansion status. Conversely, for non-Medicaid-expansion states, counties in the lowest income quartile had a 41% increase in COVID-19 mortality-rate compared to counties in the highest income quartile. Mortality-rate was not related to income in counties from Medicaid-expansion states. CONCLUSIONS: Median-household-income was not related to COVID-19 incidence-rate but negatively related to COVID-19 mortality-rate in US counties of states without Medicaid-expansion.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.