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Khetpal V, Berkowitz J, Vijayakumar S, Choudhary G, Mukand JA, Rudolph JL, Wu WC, Erqou S. Long-term Cardiovascular Manifestations and Complications of COVID-19: Spectrum and Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Rhode Island medical journal (2013). 2022 Sep 1; 105(7):16-22.
Survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience persistent symptoms, abnormal diagnostic test findings, incident disease in specific organ systems, or progression of existing disease. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is defined by persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms, findings, or diagnoses beyond four weeks after the initial infection. PACS has been characterized as a multi-organ syndrome, often with cardiopulmonary symptoms that include fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, and palpitations. Cardiovascular pathologies in PACS include new-onset arrhythmia, myocarditis, unmasked coronary artery disease, and diastolic dysfunction as well as abnormal findings on electrocardiogram, troponin testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular symptoms, pathophysiology, clinical investigation, and management strategies for cardiopulmonary symptoms of PACS. We offer a treatment algorithm for primary care clinicians encountering patients with cardiopulmonary PACS and discuss ongoing research on this topic.