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Two decade trends in cardiovascular disease outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors among US veterans living with HIV.

Haji M, Lopes VV, Ge A, Halladay C, Soares C, Shah NR, Longenecker CT, Lally M, Bloomfield GS, Shireman TI, Ross D, Sullivan JL, Rudolph JL, Wu WC, Erqou S. Two decade trends in cardiovascular disease outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors among US veterans living with HIV. International journal of cardiology. Cardiovascular risk and prevention. 2022 Dec 1; 15:200151.

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Coomprhensive data on temporal trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and outcomes in people living with HIV are limited. Using retrospective data on 50,284 US Veterans living with HIV (VLWH) who received care in the VA from 2001 to 2019, we calculated the prevalence and incidence estimates of CVD risk factors and outcomes, as well as the average annual percent changes (AAPC) in the estimates. The mean age of the Veterans increased from 47.8 (9.1) years to 58.0 (12.4) years during the study period. The population remained predominantly ( > 95%) male and majority Black (~50%). The prevalence of the CVD outcomes increased progressively over the study period: coronary artery disease (3.9%-18.7%), peripheral artery disease (2.3%, 10.3%), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (1.1%-9.9%), and heart failure (2.4%-10.5%). There was a progressive increase in risk factor burden, except for smoking which declined after 2015. The AAPC in prevalence was statistically significant for the CVD outcomes and risk factors. When adjusted for age, the predicted prevalence of CVD risk factors and outcomes showed comparable (but attenuated) trends. There was generally a comparable (but attenuated) trend in incidence of CVD outcomes, procedures, and risk factors over the study period. The use of statins increased from 10.6% (2001) to 40.8% (2019). Antiretroviral therapy usage increased from 77.7% (2001) to 85.0% (2019). In conclusion, in a retrospective analysis of large-scale VA data we found the burden and incidence of several CVD risk factors and outcomes have increased among VLWH over the past 20 years.

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