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Evans E, Gutman R, Resnik L, Krebill C, Lueckel SN, Zonfrillo MR, Thomas KS. Successful Community Discharge Among Older Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities. Archives of rehabilitation research and clinical translation. 2022 Dec 1; 4(4):100241.
OBJECTIVE: To identify admission characteristics that predict a successful community discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) among older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we leveraged probabilistically linked Medicare Administrative, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and National Trauma Data Bank data to build a parsimonious logistic model to identify characteristics associated with successful discharge. Multiple imputation methods were used to estimate effects across linked datasets to account for potential data linkage errors. SETTING: Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities in the U.S. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included a mean of 1060 community-dwelling adults aged 66 years and older across 30 linked datasets (N = 1060). All were hospitalized after TBI between 2011 and 2015 and then admitted to an IRF. The mean age of the sample was 79.7 years, and 44.3% of the sample was women. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Successful discharge home. RESULTS: Overall, 64.6% of the sample was successfully discharged home. A logistic model including 4 predictor variables: Functional Independence Measure motor (FIM-M) and cognitive (FIM-C) scores, pre-injury chronic conditions, and pre-injury living arrangement, that were significantly associated with successful discharge, resulted in acceptable discrimination (area under the curve: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.81). Higher scores on the FIM-M (odds ratio [OR]:1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.09) and FIM-C (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08) were associated with greater odds of successful discharge, whereas living alone vs with others (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71) and a greater number of chronic conditions (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99) were associated with lower odds of successful discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a parsimonious model for predicting successful discharge among older adults admitted to an IRF after a TBI-related hospitalization and provide clinically useful information to inform discharge planning.