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Geographic Variation in Influenza Vaccination Disparities Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White US Nursing Home Residents.

Riester MR, Roberts AI, Silva JBB, Howe CJ, Bardenheier BH, van Aalst R, Loiacono MM, Zullo AR. Geographic Variation in Influenza Vaccination Disparities Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White US Nursing Home Residents. Open forum infectious diseases. 2022 Dec 1; 9(12):ofac634.

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BACKGROUND: Disparities in influenza vaccination exist between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White US nursing home (NH) residents, but the geographic areas with the largest disparities remain unknown. We examined how these racial/ethnic disparities differ across states and hospital referral regions (HRRs). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included > 14 million short-stay and long-stay US NH resident-seasons over 7 influenza seasons from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2018, where residents could contribute to 1 or more seasons. Residents were aged = 65 years and enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service. We used the Medicare Beneficiary Summary File to ascertain race/ethnicity and Minimum Data Set assessments for influenza vaccination. We calculated age- and sex-standardized percentage point (pp) differences in the proportions vaccinated between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic (any race) resident-seasons. Positive pp differences were considered disparities, where the proportion of non-Hispanic White residents vaccinated was greater than the proportion of Hispanic residents vaccinated. States and HRRs with = 100 resident-seasons per age-sex stratum per racial/ethnic group were included in analyses. RESULTS: Among 7 442 241 short-stay resident-seasons (94.1% non-Hispanic White, 5.9% Hispanic), the median standardized disparities in influenza vaccination were 4.3 pp (minimum, maximum: 0.3, 19.2; n = 22 states) and 2.8 pp (minimum, maximum: -3.6, 10.3; n = 49 HRRs). Among 6 758 616 long-stay resident-seasons (93.7% non-Hispanic White, 6.5% Hispanic), the median standardized differences were -0.1 pp (minimum, maximum: -4.1, 11.4; n = 18 states) and -1.8 pp (minimum, maximum: -6.5, 7.6; n = 34 HRRs). CONCLUSIONS: Wide geographic variation in influenza vaccination disparities existed across US states and HRRs. Localized interventions targeted toward areas with high disparities may be a more effective strategy to promote health equity than one-size-fits-all national interventions.

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