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Characteristics of Clinical Trial Sites for Novel Transcatheter Mitral and Tricuspid Valvular Therapies.

Nathan AS, Reddy KP, Yang L, Eberly LA, Dayoub EJ, Khatana SAM, Julien HM, Desai ND, Szeto WY, Herrmann HC, Kobayashi TJ, Fiorilli P, Batchelor WB, Mehran R, Alkhouli MA, Giri J, Groeneveld PW, Fanaroff AC. Characteristics of Clinical Trial Sites for Novel Transcatheter Mitral and Tricuspid Valvular Therapies. JAMA cardiology. 2023 Feb 1; 8(2):120-128.

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IMPORTANCE: Racial and ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients have been underrepresented in randomized clinical trials. Efforts have focused on enhancing inclusion of minority groups at sites participating at clinical trials; however, there may be differences in the patient populations of the sites that participate in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To identify any differences in the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic composition of patient populations among candidate sites in the US that did vs did not participate in trials for novel transcatheter therapies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional analysis used Medicare Provider Claims from 2019 for patients admitted to hospitals in the US. All clinical trials for transcatheter mitral and tricuspid valve therapies and the hospitals participating in each of the trials were identified using Hospitals with active cardiac surgical programs that did not participate in the trials were also identified. Data analysis was performed between July 2021 and July 2022. EXPOSURES: Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify differences in racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic characteristics among patients undergoing cardiac surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement at trial vs nontrial hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The main outcome of the study was participation in a clinical trial for novel transcatheter mitral or tricuspid valve therapies. RESULTS: A total of 1050 hospitals with cardiac surgery programs were identified, of which 121 (11.5%) participated in trials for transcatheter mitral or tricuspid therapies. Patients treated in trial hospitals had a higher median zip code-based household income (difference of $5261; 95% CI, $2986-$7537), a lower Distressed Communities Index score (difference of 5.37; 95% CI, 2.59-8.15), and no significant difference in the proportion of patients dual eligible for Medicaid (difference of 0.86; 95% CI, -2.38 to 0.66). After adjusting for each of the socioeconomic indicators separately, there was less than 1% difference in the proportion of Black and Hispanic patients cared for at hospitals participating vs not participating in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study among candidate hospitals for clinical trials for transcatheter mitral or tricuspid valve therapies, trial hospitals took care of a more socioeconomically advantaged population than nontrial hospitals, with a similar proportion of Black and Hispanic patients. These data suggest that site selection efforts may improve enrollment of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients but may not improve the enrollment of Black and Hispanic patients.

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