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Traumatic Brain Injury and Early Onset Dementia in Post 9-11 Veterans.
Kennedy E, Panahi S, Stewart IJ, Tate DF, Wilde EA, Kenney K, Werner JK, Gill J, Diaz-Arrastia R, Amuan M, Van Cott AC, Pugh MJ. Traumatic Brain Injury and Early Onset Dementia in Post 9-11 Veterans. Brain injury. 2022 Apr 16; 36(5):620-627.
To assess traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related risks factors for early-onset dementia (EOD).
Younger Post-9/11 Veterans may be at elevated risk for EOD due to high rates of TBI in early/mid adulthood. Few studies have explored the longitudinal relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the emergence of EOD subtypes.
This matched case-control study used data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify Veterans with EOD. To address the low positive predictive value (PPV = 0.27) of dementia algorithms in VHA records, primary outcomes were Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Logistic regression identified conditions associated with dementia subtypes.
The EOD cohort included Veterans with AD (n = 689) and FTD (n = 284). There were no significant demographic differences between the EOD cohort and their matched controls. After adjustment, EOD was significantly associated with history of TBI (OR: 3.05, 2.42-3.83), epilepsy (OR: 4.8, 3.3-6.97), other neurological conditions (OR: 2.0, 1.35-2.97), depression (OR: 1.35, 1.12-1.63) and cardiac disease (OR: 1.36, 1.1-1.67).
Post-9/11 Veterans have higher odds of EOD following TBI. A sensitivity analysis across TBI severity confirmed this trend, indicating that the odds for both AD and FTD increased after more severe TBIs.