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A Mixed-Methods Protocol to Identify Best Practices for Implementing Pharmacogenetic Testing in Clinical Settings.

Sperber NR, Cragun D, Roberts MC, Bendz LM, Ince P, Gonzales S, Haga SB, Wu RR, Petry NJ, Ramsey L, Uber R. A Mixed-Methods Protocol to Identify Best Practices for Implementing Pharmacogenetic Testing in Clinical Settings. Journal of personalized medicine. 2022 Aug 13; 12(8).

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Using a patient's genetic information to inform medication prescriptions can be clinically effective; however, the practice has not been widely implemented. Health systems need guidance on how to engage with providers to improve pharmacogenetic test utilization. Approaches from the field of implementation science may shed light on the complex factors affecting pharmacogenetic test use in real-world settings and areas to target to improve utilization. This paper presents an approach to studying the application of precision medicine that utilizes mixed qualitative and quantitative methods and implementation science frameworks to understand which factors or combinations consistently account for high versus low utilization of pharmocogenetic testing. This approach involves two phases: (1) collection of qualitative and quantitative data from providers-the cases-at four clinical institutions about their experiences with, and utilization of, pharmacogenetic testing to identify salient factors; and (2) analysis using a Configurational Comparative Method (CCM), using a mathematical algorithm to identify the minimally necessary and sufficient factors that distinguish providers who have higher utilization from those with low utilization. Advantages of this approach are that it can be used for small to moderate sample sizes, and it accounts for conditions found in real-world settings by demonstrating how they coincide to affect utilization.

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