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Stern KE, Hicks S, Gavin AR, Littman AJ, Wander PL. Cross-sectional Associations of Multiracial Identity with Self-Reported Asthma and Poor Health Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities. 2022 Oct 7.
INTRODUCTION: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) multiracial subgroups are underrecognized in health outcomes research. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (2013-2019), including adults who self-identified as AI/AN only (single race AI/AN, n? = 60,413) or as AI/AN and at least one other race (multiracial AI/AN, (n? = 6056)). We used log binomial regression to estimate the survey-weighted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lifetime asthma, current asthma, and poor self-reported health among multiracial AI/AN adults compared to single race AI/AN adults, adjusting for age, obesity, and smoking status. We then examined whether associations differed by sex and by Latinx identity. RESULTS: Lifetime asthma, current asthma, and poor health were reported by 25%, 18%, and 30% of multiracial AI/AN adults and 18%, 12%, and 28% single race AI/AN adults. Multiracial AI/AN was associated with a higher prevalence of lifetime (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.18-1.43) and current asthma (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.21-1.54), but not poor health. Associations did not differ by sex. The association of multiracial identity with current asthma was stronger among AI/AN adults who identified as Latinx (PR 1.77, 95% CI 1.08-2.94) than non-Latinx AI/AN (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33), p-value for interaction 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Multiracial AI/AN adults experience a higher prevalence of lifetime and current asthma compared to single race AI/AN adults. The association between multiracial identity and current asthma is stronger among AI/AN Latinx individuals. The mechanisms for these findings remain under-explored and merit further study.