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Sex-Specific Considerations in the Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease: JACC Focus Seminar 2/7.
Solola Nussbaum S, Henry S, Yong CM, Daugherty SL, Mehran R, Poppas A. Sex-Specific Considerations in the Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease: JACC Focus Seminar 2/7. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2022 Apr 12; 79(14):1398-1406.
There are sex-related differences in the epidemiology, presentation, diagnostic testing, and management of ischemic heart disease in women compared with men. The adjusted morbidity and mortality are persistently higher, particularly in younger women and Blacks. Women have more angina but less obstructive coronary artery disease, which affects delays in presentation and diagnosis and testing accuracy. The nonbiological factors play a significant role in access to care, ischemic heart disease management, and guideline adherence. Future research focus includes sex-specific outcomes, characterization of the biological differences, and implementation science around quality of clinical care.