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Jones SMW, Sherman KJ, Bermet Z, Palazzo LG, Lewis CC. An experimental study to inform adoption of mindfulness-based stress reduction in chronic low back pain. Implementation science communications. 2022 Aug 6; 3(1):87.
BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is a common and sometimes disabling condition, and mindfulness-based stress reduction is recommended as a first line of therapy. This study tested whether different descriptions of mindfulness training altered based on influential intervention characteristics increased adoption intentions. METHODS: People with chronic low back pain (n = 452) were randomized to review one of four mindfulness training descriptions in an online survey using a 2 × 2 factorial design. The first factor was evidence strength and quality with relative advantage (ER). The second factor was adaptability, trialability, complexity, and design quality and packaging (AD). Each factor had two levels: a description of standardized mindfulness training that described each intervention characteristic and a patient-centered description emphasizing flexibility and patient testimonials. The primary outcomes were intentions to try mindfulness training and practice mindfulness at home. Using structural equation modeling with a bootstrapped distribution, we tested six mediators, three of which are Theory of Planned Behavior predictors of intention-self-efficacy, norms, and attitudes- and the other three are predictors of adoption-feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability. RESULTS: Overall, the mindfulness training descriptions were not associated with an increase in intentions compared to the classic vignette (11/12 p''s > 0.05). Most descriptions were unrelated to mediators except the classic ER with patient-centered AD was associated with higher self-efficacy/control and feasibility (p''s = 0.05; standardized effect range: 0.111-0.125). Self-efficacy/control (training standardized coefficient: 0.531, home: 0.686), norms (training: 0.303, home: 0.256), and attitudes (training: 0.316, home: 0.293) were all positively associated with intentions to adopt mindfulness training and home practice. Feasibility (training: 0.185; home: 0.293) and acceptability (training: 0.639; home: 0.554) were positively related to intentions to adopt mindfulness training. Appropriateness was related to intentions to adopt home practice (0.187) but not mindfulness training (0.100). None of the indirect effects from experimental group to intentions was significant (all p''s > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Self-efficacy/control and acceptability may be key mediators for increasing patient adoption of mindfulness. Because experimental manipulation did not substantially change intentions to adopt mindfulness, the presentation and delivery of MBSR may need to be tailored to the individual patient''s needs rather than a specific format for chronic low back pain.