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Sperber NR, Miech EJ, Clary AS, Perry K, Edwards-Orr M, Rudolph JL, Van Houtven CH, Thomas KS. Determinants of inter-organizational implementation success: A mixed-methods evaluation of Veteran Directed Care. Healthcare (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2022 Dec 1; 10(4):100653.
BACKGROUND: Veteran Directed Care (VDC) aims to keep Veterans at risk for nursing home placement in their communities. VA medical centers (VAMCs) purchase VDC from third-party organizational providers who then partner with them during implementation. Experiences with VDC implementation have varied. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify conditions differentiating partnerships with higher enrollment (implementation success). METHODS: We conducted a case-based study with: qualitative data on implementation determinants two and eight months after program start, directed content analysis to assign numerical scores (-2 strong barrier to +2 strong facilitator), and mathematical modeling using Coincidence Analysis (CNA) to identify key determinants of implementation success. Cases consisted of VAMCs and partnering non-VAMC organizations who started VDC during 2017 or 2018. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided analysis. RESULTS: Eleven individual organizations within five partnerships constituted our sample. Two CFIR determinants- Networks and Communication and External Change Agent-uniquely and consistently identified implementation success. At an inter-organizational partnership level, Networks and Communications and External Change Agent +2 (i.e., present as strong facilitators) were both necessary and sufficient. At a within-organization level, Networks and Communication +2 was necessary but not sufficient for the non-VAMC providers, whereas External Change Agent +2 was necessary and sufficient for VAMCs. CONCLUSION: Networks and Communication and External Change Agent played difference-making roles in inter-organizational implementation success, which differ by type of organization and level of analysis. IMPLICATIONS: This multi-level approach identified crucial difference-making conditions for inter-organizational implementation success when putting a program into practice requires partnerships across multiple organizations.