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Hohmann LA, Fox BI, Garza KB, Wang CH, Correia C, Curran GM, Westrick SC. Impact of a Multicomponent Educational Intervention on Community Pharmacy-Based Naloxone Services Implementation: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2023 Jun 1; 57(6):677-695.
BACKGROUND: Despite US naloxone access laws, community pharmacists lack training and confidence in providing naloxone. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the Empowering Community Pharmacists program on pharmacists' knowledge, perceived barriers, attitudes, confidence, and intentions regarding naloxone services implementation, as well as naloxone prescriptions dispensed. METHODS: A 3-month pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted from December 2018 to March 2019. Alabama community pharmacists were recruited by mail, email, phone, and fax and randomized to intervention (monthly resources/reminders + educational webinar) or control (monthly reminders only). Outcome measures were assessed via online surveys at baseline (T1), immediately post-intervention (T2), and 3 months post-intervention (T3), including naloxone knowledge (%correct); perceived barriers, attitudes, confidence, and intention regarding naloxone services implementation (7-point Likert-type scale; 1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree); and number of naloxone prescriptions dispensed. Mean differences between control and intervention from T1 to T3 were assessed using 2-way mixed analysis of variance and adjusted analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations with negative binomial distribution to assess associations between variables. RESULTS: Of 55 participants (n = 27 intervention, n = 28 control), most were female (80.3%), white (80.6%), in independently owned pharmacies (39.1%). Increases in mean [SD] confidence (5.52 [1.03]-6.16 [0.74], < 0.0005) and intention (5.35 [1.51]-6.10 [0.96], = 0.023) occurred from pre- to post-program within the intervention group and were statistically significant compared with control (confidence = 0.016, intention = 0.014). Confidence (exp(ß) = 1.46, = 0.031) and perceived barriers (exp(ß) = 0.75, = 0.022) were associated with number of naloxone prescriptions dispensed. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The Empowering Community Pharmacists program improved community pharmacists' confidence and intention regarding naloxone services implementation. Other states can adapt program elements according to their laws. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT05093309.