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The SPUR adherence profiling tool: preliminary results of algorithm development.
de Bock E, Dolgin K, Arnould B, Hubert G, Lee A, Piette JD. The SPUR adherence profiling tool: preliminary results of algorithm development. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2022 Feb 1; 38(2):171-179.
The SPUR (Social, Psychological, Usage, and Rational) Adherence Profiling Tool is a recently developed adaptive instrument for measuring key patient-level risk factors for adherence problems. This study describes the SPUR questionnaire''s psychometric refinement and evaluation.
Data were collected through an online survey among individuals with type 2 diabetes in the United States. 501 participants completed multiple questionnaires, including SPUR and several validated adherence measures. A Partial Credit Model (PCM) analysis was performed to evaluate the structure of the SPUR tool and verify the assumption of a single underlying latent variable reflecting adherence. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were conducted to identify which hierarchically-defined items within each dimension needed to be answered by a given patient. Lastly, correlations were calculated between the latent trait of SPUR adherence and other patient-reported adherence measures.
Of the 45 candidate SPUR items, 39 proved to fit well to the PCM confirming that SPUR responses reflected one underlying latent trait hypothesized as non-adherence. Correlations between the latent trait of the SPUR tool and other adherence measures were positive, statistically significant, and ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 (-values? < .0001). The person-item map showed that the items reflected well the range of adherence behaviors from perfect adherence to high levels of non-adherence. The PLS-DA results confirmed the relevance of using four meta-items as filters to open or close subsequent items from their corresponding SPUR dimensions.
The SPUR tool represents a promising new adaptive instrument for measuring adherence accurately and efficiently using the digital behavioral diagnostic tool.