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Declining trend in use of medications for sleep disturbance in the United States from 2013 to 2018.

Kaufmann CN, Spira AP, Wickwire EM, Mojtabai R, Ancoli-Israel S, Fung CH, Malhotra A. Declining trend in use of medications for sleep disturbance in the United States from 2013 to 2018. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2022 Oct 1; 18(10):2459-2465.

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Abstract:

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Recent initiatives to discourage overprescription of sleep medications have increased awareness of their potential adverse effects; however, it is unknown whether these efforts translated into a decline in use of these medications in the United States. We assessed recent national trends in the use of medications used for sleep disturbance. METHODS: We used data from n = 29,400 participants in the 2013-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. At each of three waves of in-person assessments, participants presented prescription bottles for all medications used in the prior month. Interviewers recorded each medication and participants self-reported duration and reasons for use. We identified all medications used for sleep disturbance and categorized medications into two categories: Food and Drug Administration-approved sleep medications and those used off-label for sleep disturbance. We examined changes in the prevalence in use of these medications across the study period. RESULTS: The odds of using medications for sleep disturbance decreased 31% between 2013 and 2018 (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.93, = .015). This trend was driven by declines in use of Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for sleep disturbance, especially for medium- and long-term duration of use. Notably, among those age 80+ years, we observed an 86% decline (odds ratio = 0.14, 95% confidence interval = 0.05-0.36, < .001) in use of Food and Drug Administration-approved sleep medications over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Use of prescription medications for sleep disturbance declined nationally, suggesting a possible effect of efforts to curb overprescription and encourage judicious use of these agents. Future research needs to examine whether these changes have coincided with improved population sleep health. CITATION: Kaufmann CN, Spira AP, Wickwire EM, et al. Declining trend in use of medications for sleep disturbance in the United States from 2013 to 2018. . 2022;18(10):2459-2465.





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