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Use of antiretroviral therapy in nursing home residents with HIV.

Zhang T, Shireman TI, Meyers DJ, Zullo A, Lee Y, Wilson IB. Use of antiretroviral therapy in nursing home residents with HIV. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2022 Jun 1; 70(6):1800-1806.

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BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) are essential HIV care. As people living with HIV age and their presence in nursing homes (NHs) increases, it is critical to evaluate the quality of HIV care. We determine the rate of ART use and examine individual- and facility-level characteristics associated with no ART use in a nationally representative long-stay NH residents with HIV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all long-stay Medicare fee-for-service NH residents (2013-2016) with HIV who had a valid Minimum Data Set assessment. Residents were followed from long-stay qualification until death, Part D disenrollment, transfer from long-term care to another healthcare setting, or December 31, 2016. We identified individual and facility characteristics that were associated with non-use of ART using generalized estimating equation logistic regression. RESULTS: Exactly 4171 eligible HIV+ residents from 2459 NHs were included in our study. Only 36% (1507 of 4171) received any ART regimen during an average of 11.6?months of observation. Older age, females, white race, receipt of Medicare skilled nursing benefits, and some major cardiometabolic comorbidities and mental health conditions were associated with non-ART use. Rates of non-ART use did not vary significantly by residents'' end-of-life status (p  =  0.21). Residents in facilities with a higher HIV concentration [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 3.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.13-5.48] and an AIDS unit (adjOR 2.51; 95% CI 1.92-3.30) had higher odds of using an ART. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The rate of ART use by HIV+ long-stay NH residents was low. Facilities'' experience with HIV played an important role in ART receipt. Interventions to improve rates of ART use in NHs are urgently needed to ensure optimal health outcomes.

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