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Interventions for Frailty Among Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

Ijaz N, Buta B, Xue QL, Mohess DT, Bushan A, Tran H, Batchelor W, deFilippi CR, Walston JD, Bandeen-Roche K, Forman DE, Resar JR, O'Connor CM, Gerstenblith G, Damluji AA. Interventions for Frailty Among Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2022 Feb 8; 79(5):482-503.

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With the aging of the world''s population, a large proportion of patients seen in cardiovascular practice are older adults, but many patients also exhibit signs of physical frailty. Cardiovascular disease and frailty are interdependent and have the same physiological underpinning that predisposes to the progression of both disease processes. Frailty can be defined as a phenomenon of increased vulnerability to stressors due to decreased physiological reserves in older patients and thus leads to poor clinical outcomes after cardiovascular insults. There are various pathophysiologic mechanisms for the development of frailty: cognitive decline, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, and lack of social supports; these risk factors provide opportunity for various types of interventions that aim to prevent, improve, or reverse the development of frailty syndrome in the context of cardiovascular disease. There is no compelling study demonstrating a successful intervention to improve a global measure of frailty. Emerging data from patients admitted with heart failure indicate that interventions associated with positive outcomes on frailty and physical function are multidimensional and include tailored cardiac rehabilitation. Contemporary cardiovascular practice should actively identify patients with physical frailty who could benefit from frailty interventions and aim to deliver these therapies in a patient-centered model to optimize quality of life, particularly after cardiovascular interventions.

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