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Positive Predictive Value of COVID-19 ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes Across Calendar Time and Clinical Setting.
Lynch KE, Viernes B, Gatsby E, DuVall SL, Jones BE, Box TL, Kreisler C, Jones M. Positive Predictive Value of COVID-19 ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes Across Calendar Time and Clinical Setting. Clinical epidemiology. 2021 Oct 27; 13:1011-1018.
To estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code U07.1, COVID-19 virus identified, in the Department of Veterans of Affairs (VA).
Patients and Methods:
Records of ICD-10 code U07.1 from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency/urgent care settings were extracted from VA medical record data from 4/01/2020 to 3/31/2021. A weighted, random sample of 1500 records from each quarter of the one-year observation period was reviewed by study personnel to confirm active COVID-19 infection at the time of diagnosis and classify reasons for false positive records. PPV was estimated overall and compared across clinical setting and quarters.
We identified 664,406 records of U07.1. Among the 1500 reviewed, 237 were false positives (PPV: 84.2%, 95% CI: 82.4-86.0). PPV ranged from 77.7% in outpatient settings to 93.8% in inpatient settings and was 83.3% in quarter 1, 80.5% in quarter 2, 86.1% in quarter 3, and 83.6% in quarter 4. The most common reasons for false positive records were history of COVID-19 (44.3%) and orders for laboratory tests (21.5%).
The PPV of ICD-10 code U07.1 is low, especially in outpatient settings. Directed training may improve accuracy of coding to levels that are deemed adequate for future use in surveillance efforts.