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Chang DJ, Moin T. Coronavirus disease 2019 and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity. 2021 Feb 1; 28(1):35-42.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a major comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but less is known about COVID-19 and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Thus, our goal was to review the literature on COVID and T1DM. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 21 reports focusing on COVID-19 infections among patients with preexisting T1DM (n = 7), incident T1DM presentations during the COVID-19 quarantine (n = 6), and outpatient management of T1DM during the COVID-19 quarantine (n = 8). These studies showed that patients with preexisting T1DM and COVID-19 infection often present with hyperglycemia and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Although the risk of in-hospital mortality may be increased, hospitalization rates among patients with T1DM mirror that of the general population. The numbers of patients presenting with incident T1DM during COVID-19 quarantine have remained stable, but cases with severe DKA may have increased. COVID-19 quarantine has also impacted outpatient T1DM management and studies examining changes in glycemic control have shown mixed results. SUMMARY: COVID-19 has important implications for patients with type 1 diabetes, but additional studies with larger numbers of patients and longer term follow-up are needed to confirm the early findings highlighted in this review.