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Peh KQE, Kwan YH, Goh H, Ramchandani H, Phang JK, Lim ZY, Loh DHF, Østbye T, Blalock DV, Yoon S, Bosworth HB, Low LL, Thumboo J. An Adaptable Framework for Factors Contributing to Medication Adherence: Results from a Systematic Review of 102 Conceptual Frameworks. Journal of general internal medicine. 2021 Sep 1; 36(9):2784-2795.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the available conceptual models for factors contributing to medication adherence based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s five dimensions of medication adherence via a systematic review, identify the patient groups described in available conceptual models, and present an adaptable conceptual model that describes the factors contributing to medication adherence in the identified patient groups. METHODS: We searched PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL®, and PsycINFO® for English language articles published from inception until 31 March 2020. Full-text original publications in English that presented theoretical or conceptual models for factors contributing to medication adherence were included. Studies that presented statistical models were excluded. Two authors independently extracted the data. RESULTS: We identified 102 conceptual models, and classified the factors contributing to medication adherence using the WHO's five dimensions of medication adherence, namely patient-related, medication-related, condition-related, healthcare system/healthcare provider-related, and socioeconomic factors. Eight patient groups were identified based on age and disease condition. The most universally addressed factors were patient-related factors. Medication-related, condition-related, healthcare system-related, and socioeconomic factors were represented to various extents depending on the patient group. By systematically examining how the WHO's five dimensions of medication adherence were applied differently across the eight different patient groups, we present a conceptual model that can be adapted to summarize the common factors contributing to medication adherence in different patient groups. CONCLUSION: Our conceptual models can be utilized as a guide for clinicians and researchers in identifying the facilitators and barriers to medication adherence and developing future interventions to improve medication adherence. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42020181316.