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Multisite evaluation of institutional processes and implementation determinants for pharmacogenetic testing to guide antidepressant therapy.
Tuteja S, Salloum RG, Elchynski AL, Smith DM, Rowe E, Blake KV, Limdi NA, Aquilante CL, Bates J, Beitelshees AL, Cipriani A, Duong BQ, Empey PE, Formea CM, Hicks JK, Mroz P, Oslin D, Pasternak AL, Petry N, Ramsey LB, Schlichte A, Swain SM, Ward KM, Wiisanen K, Skaar TC, Van Driest SL, Cavallari LH, Bishop JR, IGNITE Pharmacogenetics Working Group. Multisite evaluation of institutional processes and implementation determinants for pharmacogenetic testing to guide antidepressant therapy. Clinical and translational science. 2022 Feb 1; 15(2):371-383.
There is growing interest in utilizing pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing to guide antidepressant use, but there is lack of clarity on how to implement testing into clinical practice. We administered two surveys at 17 sites that had implemented or were in the process of implementing PGx testing for antidepressants. Survey 1 collected data on the process and logistics of testing. Survey 2 asked sites to rank the importance of Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) constructs using best-worst scaling choice experiments. Of the 17 sites, 13 had implemented testing and four were in the planning stage. Thirteen offered testing in the outpatient setting, and nine in both outpatient/inpatient settings. PGx tests were mainly ordered by psychiatry (92%) and primary care (69%) providers. CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 were the most commonly tested genes. The justification for antidepressants selected for PGx guidance was based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines (94%) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA; 75.6%) guidance. Both institutional (53%) and commercial laboratories (53%) were used for testing. Sites varied on the methods for returning results to providers and patients. Sites were consistent in ranking CFIR constructs and identified patient needs/resources, leadership engagement, intervention knowledge/beliefs, evidence strength and quality, and the identification of champions as most important for implementation. Sites deployed similar implementation strategies and measured similar outcomes. The process of implementing PGx testing to guide antidepressant therapy varied across sites, but key drivers for successful implementation were similar and may help guide other institutions interested in providing PGx-guided pharmacotherapy for antidepressant management.